Malay in Malaya were subjects of the sultans.
The British in Malaya created the sultanates, as territorial states, an extension of the river-mouth dwelling toll collecting kerajaan sungei.
The sultans, Indians, Chinese and others were British subjects who exchanged their status for Malayan citizenship under the Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957.
The question of Malay agreeing to give citizenship to Indians and Chinese does not arise. Citizenship was by the Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957 and the Federal Constitution.
There’s no evidence that Malay became citizens after Merdeka, i.e. 31 Aug 1957, in Malaya.
According to the Origin of Malay Nationalism, by William Roff, 85 per cent of Muslim in Malaya in the 1890s were immigrants and descendants of immigrants.
The Definition of Malay in Article 160(2) is not race but a form of identity for Muslim born or domiciled in S’pore or Malaya by Merdeka. Their descendants are Malay.
The Malay language was not originated by any race but created as lingua franca for the Archipelago by Hindu and Buddhist from India.
Malay was based on a Cambodian dialect, Tamil, Sanskrit and Pali.
The west coast of Malaya for example, S’pore in particular, is the natural circulation corridor between southeast India and points further west and south China and points further east.
The natural circulation corridor, which attracted Indians and Chinese for thousands of years, has spawned great wealth.
The eastern coast of Sumatra, on the other side of the Straits of Malacca, did not attract Indians and Chinese and failed to take off. The Minangkabu and Acheh in Sumatra migrated to the west coast of Malaya.
M’sia’s history has already been written by the rest of the world.
No one can beat my blog pieces on Definition of Malay in Article 160(2), Negrito from Kerala southwest India being the first people in Malaya, bogus Malay MyKads and PTI.
Hang Li Po, Hang Tuah & Co are fairy tales.
It’s a MORON DOUBLE DUNGGU approach to say that the Malacca Empire was a fairy tale if Hang Li Po, Hang Tuah & Co were fairy tales.
Read further here . . .
Malaysia not tanah Melayu . . . Tanah Melayu misnomer for gov’t reserves British created on Orang Asli land.
The Anglo-Siamese Treaty, signed in 1909, saw Bangkok give up the southern half of the Kra Peninsula to Britain.
JPN should explain if Zahid Hamidi holds Malay MyKad.
Zahid’s MyKad, if he’s eligible to get it, and entitled to hold it, should read Lain Lain.